Publications/Dec 08, 2021

New Issue of Revue des Études Byzantines (2021)

New Issue of Revue des Études Byzantines (2021) lead image

Revue des Études Byzantines, volume 79 (2021).


Las dos versiones de la Crónica breve atribuida al patriarca Nicéforo y su vinculación con la obra de Jorge Sincelo

Two versions of the short chronicle attributed to the patriarch Nicephorus I have come down to us. Carl De Boor, who edited the text, argued that the short version was written by Nicephorus, whereas the long version was an expanded text produced in Palestine some decades later. In the present article we argue for the dependence of both versions on a common original whose content and structure is more faithfully preserved in the long version. Text-critical considerations are advanced to support this view together with other arguments based on content and structure. Moreover, it is argued that this original of both versions is closely connected with the dossier of texts compiled or produced by Michael Syncellus during the writing of his own chronicle. Nicephorus’s work probably consisted merely in summarising and adapting the content of this original text.

La Dispute contre les juifs de l'Abbé Anastase (CPG 7772), les Dialogica polymorpha antiiudaica (CPG 7796) et les «Livres contre les juifs» perdus d'Anastase le Sinaïte
Bastien DUMONT 

Whether Abbot Anastasius’ Disputation against the Jews – published in PG 89 – should be attributed to Anastasius of Sinai is highly controversial. In this paper, we systematically evaluate all purely philological arguments from both sides and examine the manuscripts, arguing that there is no evidence that the text was written before the 9th century. Parts of the text may rely on Anastasian material that most probably was transmitted through the Dialogica (olim Dialogue of Papiscus and Philo), whereas other parts were borrowed from various works, thereby forming a unique composition that cannot be considered as a collection of fragments from Anastasius of Sinai’s lost anti-Judaic treatise.

Présence et fonction de la «matière chrétienne» dans les Chiliades de Jean Tzétzès
Corinne JOUANNO 

In Tzetzes’ Chiliades, we may note the presence of a rather substantial set of Christian references, which can be surprising in this work of self-commentary, where it would seem, a priori, superfluous to make explicit these kinds of allusions included in the author’s letters, since they were undoubtedly transparent for Byzantine readers. The first part of the article lists these various references, specifies their origin, analyses Tzetzes’s treatment of them and the possible distortions to which he subjects his sources; the second part underlines the importance he attributes to a dialogue between the Judeo-Christian heritage and the pagan heritage, which he wishes to bring together, thus showing his mastery of the two constitutive elements of Byzantine culture; the third part shows how Tzetzes uses Christian references to complete his presentation of himself as a multi-skilled exegete, a polyglot, a lover of grammar and rhetoric, gifted with both finesse and originality.

Parisinus graecus 400: Poetry and Paraenesis in Cyprus

Ms. Paris, BnF, grec 400 is a treasure-trove of little-known texts, including model letters, homilies and poems composed in Cyprus, which has been oddly overlooked in studies of Greek culture and literature under the Lusignans. This paper consists of four parts: (i) the date, provenance and composition of the manuscript; (ii) its poetic contents; (iii) the social function of the paraenetic poems it contains; and (iv) an edition of a hitherto unknown collection of paraenetic poems, Στίχοι τοῦ ἁγίου Γρηγορίου τοῦ Θεολόγου ἐκ τῶν γνωμικῶν, probably dating from the thirteenth century.

Précisions chronologiques sur l'histoire du patriarcat de Constantinople entre 1462 et 1465: À propos du patriarche Sôphronios Ier (Sylvestre) Syropoulos

The present research revisits the factual basis for establishing the chronology of the first patriarchs of Constantinople after the Ottoman conquest in 1453, in order to understand the reason for the divergence of views in the historiography of the last century. Based on the latest documentary advances, it arrives at the conclusion that there were two patriarchates of Sylvester Syropoulos, who became patriarch under the name of Sôphronios I (1462-1463 and 1464-1465), placed immediately before and after that of Iôasaph Kokkas (1463-1464). Whereas they were hitherto conflated, the distinction between the two makes it possible to understand the contradictions in the oldest patriarchal lists and the damnatio memoriae of which Sôphronios was victim in the first patriarchal chronicles of the 16th century. Finally, the existence of the two patriarchates of Sôphronios rules out the assumption of a second and third patriarchate of Gennadios II Scholarios (1453/1454-1456), which was not based on the sources, but on modern historiographical interpretations. This elucidation gives a clearer picture of the competing forces in Constantinopolitan Christian society under Ottoman rule and allows a better understanding of the ideological issues at stake between the political-religious camps of the time.

Puiser aux sources byzantines: Nouveaux éléments sur l'utilisation du registre synodal byzantin par la chancellerie patriarcale post-byzantine (1489/1490, 1499, 1530)

Thanks to a study published in Athens in 1988, we already knew that the two volumes of the Byzantine patriarchal register that contain acts from the period between 1315 and 1404 were in the patriarchate’s chancery in the post-Byzantine era, as attested twice, in 1476 and in 1551. The present study proposes further developments of this research, allowing us to broaden these chronological limits and to show the actual use of these Byzantine volumes by the patriarchal chancery during the first century of the post-Byzantine period. Four patriarchal acts, dated 1489/1490, 1493, 1499 and 1530, were written by a writer who evidently had at hand some Byzantine patriarchal acts dating from 1368, 1387 and 1390, and who must therefore have had at his disposal the two volumes of the Byzantine register (Vindob. Hist. gr. 47 and 48).

La bibliothèque du hiéromoine Ignace dans le premier quart du 16e siècle et les collections de manuscrits des Météores
Thibault MIGUET

This paper offers a contribution to the complex history of the manuscript collection of the Meteora monasteries by reconstituting the collection of Ignatios, a 16th-century hieromonk who can be linked to the Meteora. This reconstitution is based on three previously edited book lists, which are here re-edited, translated into French and commented upon in light of a new analysis of the manuscripts: two of the lists, dated and signed, are preserved on the guard-leaves of the ms. Paris, BnF, Coislin 292 (Diktyon 49433). A third list, anonymous, written in a ms. today in the Meteora (Meteora, Mone Metamorphoseos, 65 [Diktyon 41476]), had not heretofore been connected to Ignatios. These lists enable us to trace the features and evolution of a rich private collection in the 16th century while also casting new light on the history of Greek libraries in the post-Byzantine era.

Some Observations on Tree Protection in Roman and Byzantine Law
Daphne PENNA 

This paper examines some legal provisions on tree protection in Roman law and examines their transition into Byzantine law. The protection of cypresses in the Daphne area of Antioch and the protection of forests, of vine trees and of views onto gardens and mountains will be discussed. The Romans and Byzantines did not develop a legal programme on what we would currently call 'environmental law'. The majority of Roman and Byzantine rules on tree protection do not aim at protecting nature as such but have economic motives instead, and in most cases they concern the protection of private property. In a few cases, however, the Romans and Byzantines not only admired a beautiful natural environment, as shown by the legal sources examined here, but also attempted to secure such an environment through legal means.

Byzantine Seals from the Robert Feind Collection in Cologne: Research and Publication in the Context of the Digital Humanities
Maria Teresa CATALANO, Martina FILOSA, and Claudia SODE 

This paper demonstrates the potential for synergy between established research methods in the field of Byzantine sigillography and the technologies provided by the Digital Humanities. More particularly, it describes the application of digital tools and solutions – primarily of text encoding standards (such as SigiDoc) and up-to-date imaging techniques (such as RTI) – to a collection of Byzantine lead seals (Collection Robert Feind in Cologne, with ca. 1700 specimina). By means of a case study it shows the benefits that RTI (Reflectance Transformation Imaging) can offer to a discipline such as Byzantine sigillography, based on the recognisability and readability of an inscribed surface, thus allowing for further investigation of both the legend and iconography of Byzantine lead seals. In its last section, it provides the first scholarly publication of a selection of ten seals from the Robert Feind Collection, which will soon be published in its entirety in digital and open-access form.

Κομμερκιάριος τοῦ βαμβακίου: Ein neuer Aspekt in der byzantinischen Finanz- und Verwaltungsgeschichte
Alexandra-Kyriaki WASSILOU-SEIBT 

Recently, the seal of a Niketas, κομμερκιάριος τοῦ βαμβακίου, from the period ca. 1010/1040 appeared in an auction. Though we have much information about the kommerkiarioi throughout the centuries, a dignitary responsible for cotton, probably for providing the Byzantine manufactories, esp. the imperial ones in the capital, with cotton or cotton fabrics, was heretofore unknown. Normally, the market worked independently, but during the tenth century relatively cold periods reduced cotton production and the flow of raw materials from some export regions (such as Northern Iran) dried up. As a consequence, the government installed a special dignitary to open new markets logistically, perhaps even as far away as India – perhaps with Arab middlemen. As soon as the market began to function again, this special kommerkiarios had done his job.